Mineral Resources

Mineral Resources | Geography


  • The minerals are broadly classified into two. They are
  • Metallic Minerals
  • Non – metallic minerals.

Metallic minerals

  • The metallic minerals contain metals such as iron, Copper, Manganese, Bauxite and Gold.
  • They are further divided into ferrous minerals and non-ferrous minerals.

Ferrous minerals

  • Minerals having more iron content are called ferrous minerals.
  • For example
  • Iron
  • Manganese
  • Nickel
  • Cobalt
  • Tungsten

Non – Ferrous Minerals

  • Minerals which do not have iron contents are called non – ferrous minerals.
  • For example
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Copper
  • Bauxite

Non – Metallic Minerals

  • The non – metallic minerals are minerals which do not contain metals, such as:
  • Mica
  • Lime Stone
  • Gypsum
  • Potash
  • Coal


  • Coal
  • Petroleum

Some Important Minerals Iron Ore

  • Iron one is the basic resource for a nation‘s development.
  • Iron is described as the backbone of civilization.
  • India possesses 20% of the iron deposits of the world ‘s total reserves
  • It is the second largest after the reserves of Russia.
  • The quality of Indian ore is very high.
  • Iron producing areas in India are
  • Durg in Chhattisgarh
  • Singh Phum district in Jharkhand
  • Mayurbhanj, Koenjhar and Sundergarh district in Orissa
  • other areas are Goa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.


  • India occupies the fifth position in the production of manganese.
  • It is estimated that about 20 % of the manganese deposits of the world are in India.
  • Manganese plays a very important role in the iron and steel industry as it is necessary to make steel hard and rustproof.
  • Manganese dioxide is used for the manufacture of dry batteries.
  • It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder and paints.

Manganese Produced Areas are

  • Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh
  • Koonjhar, Boonaigarh in Orissa
  • Bellary Chitradurga, Shimoga in Karnataka
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Maharashtra
  • Gujarat
  • Bihar


  • It is the ore of aluminum.
  • Aluminium is a light metal formed by the decomposition of rocks rich in aluminium silicates.
  • Due to good conducting, Great malleability and extreme lightness, it has got enormous industrial importance.

The major bauxite producing centers of India are


  • Bilaspur in Chattisgarh
  • Ranchi in Jarkhand
  • Ratnagiri, Raigarh in Maharashtra
  • Sambalpur, Kalahandi in Orissa
  • Goa
  • Gujarat
  • Karnataka
  • Tamil Nadu (Salem, Madurai, Nilgiri).


  • Copper is another metal found in nature as a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  • It has an important role in the Electrical goods industry.
  • Copper is mixed with other metals to form alloys.
  • Copper producing areas are
  • Singhbhum in Jharkhand
  • Guntur and Nellore in Andhra Pradesh
  • Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh
  • Rajasthan
  • Karnataka


  • Mica is a bad conductor of electricity and so it is used I the manufacture of electrical goods.
  • India contributes about 60 % of the mica production in the world.
  • Major mica producing states of India are:
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Jharkhand
  • Bihar
  • Rajasthan

Conservation of Mineral Resources

  • The total volume of usable mineral deposits is one percent of the Earth‘s crust. We rapidly consuming mineral resources.
  • But the geological processes of mineral formation are so slow and therefore they are non – renewable.
  • A concerted effort has to be made In order to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner.
  • New technologies need to be evolved to use low-grade ores at low coasts, recycled metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes to conserve our mineral resources for the future.

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